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निघण्टु

समाम्नायः समाम्नातः। स व्याख्यातव्यः। तमिमं समाम्नायं ‘निघण्टव’ इत्याचक्षते। निघण्टवः कस्मात्। निगमा इमे भवन्ति। छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नाताः। ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्त इत्यौपमन्यवः। अपि वा हननादेव स्युः। समाहता भवन्ति। यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति।

तद् यानि चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते। चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च तानीमानि भवन्ति। तत्रैतन्नामाख्यातयोर्लक्षणं प्रदिशन्ति। भावप्रधानमाख्यातम्। सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि। तद्यत्रोभे, भावप्रधाने भवतः पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे। व्रजति पचतीति। उपक्रमप्रभृत्यपवर्गपर्यन्तं मूर्त्तं सत्त्वभूतं सत्त्वनामभिः। व्रज्या पक्तिरिति। अद इति सत्त्वानामुपदेशः। गौरश्वः पुरुषो हस्तीति। भवतीति भावस्य। आस्ते शेते व्रजति तिष्ठतीति।

(निरुक्त - यास्क)


A traditional list (of words) has been handed down (to us). It is to be (here) explained. This same list is called Ni-ghaṇṭavas. From what (root) is (the word) Ni-ghaṇṭavas derived? They are words quoted from the Vedas (ni-gamāḥ). Having been repeatedly gathered together from Vedic hymns, they have been handed down by tradition. Aupamanyava holds that, as these are the quoted words of the Vedas, they are called Ni-ghaṇṭavas on account of their being quoted (ni-gamanāt). Or else (the word Ni-ghaṇṭavas) may be (so called) from being fixed only (√han), i.e. (a list, in which) they (the words) are fixed together, or collected together (√hṛ).

Now, what (are) the four classes of words? They are the following: noun and verb; prepositions and particles. With reference to this, they thus prescribe the definition of noun and verb: the verb has becoming as its fundamental notion, nouns have being as their fundamental notion. But where both are dominated by becoming, a becoming arising from a former to a later state is denoted by a verb, as ‘he goes’, ‘he cooks’, &c. The embodiment of the whole process from the beginning to the end, which has assumed the character of being, is denoted by a noun, as ‘going’, ‘cooking’, &c. The demonstrative pronoun is a reference to beings, as ‘cow’, ‘horse’, ‘man’, ‘elephant’, &c.; ‘to be’, to becoming, as ‘he sits’, ‘he sleeps’, ‘he goes’, ‘he stands’, &c.

(Translation by Sri Lakshman Sarup - “The Nighaṇṭu and The Nirukta”)

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The following is our wish list of Sanskrit dictionaries to be added to the search.

Sanskrit to English Dictionaries

A Dictionary in Sanscrit and English : H. H. Wilson (2nd Ed., 1832)
  A Dictionary in Sanscrit and English : Rev. W. Yates (1846)
  A Sanskrit - English Dictionary : Theodore Benfey (1866)
  The Standard Sanskrit-English Dictionary : LR Vaidya (1889)
A Sanskrit - English Dictionary : Carl Cappeller (1891)
Sanskrit-English Dictionary : Sir M. Monier Williams (2nd Ed., 1899)
The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary : Vaman Shivram Apte (2nd Ed., 1912)
A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary : Arthur Anthony MacDonell (1924)

Sanskrit to Sanskrit Dictionaries

शब्दकल्पद्रुमः : स्यार राजा राधाकान्तदेव बहादुरः
    (Sabdakalpadrum : Sri Raja Radha Kanta Deva) (3rd Ed., 1967)
वाचस्पत्यम् : श्री तारानाथ-तर्कवाचस्पति भट्टाचार्यः
     (Vachaspatyam : Sri Taranatha Tarkavachaspati) (1962)

English to Sanskrit Dictionaries

Dictionary, English and Sanskrit : Sir M. Monier Williams (1851)
English - Sanskrit Dictionary : Anundoram Borooah (1877)
*The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary : Vaman Shivram Apte (3rd Ed. 1920)


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